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Gas Oil

Gas Oil

MGT PetrOil Company is a major producer, supplier and exporter of many petrochemical products in the Middle East which is located in Iran. MGT PetrOil Company has many years’ experiences in exporting and it is active in case of Bitumen supplying.


Iran holds the world's fourth-largest proved crude oil reserves and the world's second-largest natural gas reserves. Moreover, the world's top 10 oil producers and top 5 natural gas producers is belonging to Iran. The most important rout for exporting of oil from Iran and all Persian Gulf countries is the Strait of Hormuz, off the southeastern coast of Iran. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) volumes also flow through the Strait of Hormuz.

in 1963, (NPC) National Petrochemical Company was established to spearhead the development and policy-making for petrochemical industry in Iran. the oldest petrochemical industry in the Middle East is belong to Iran. proudly in ethylene production, Iran can be introduced as a second major producer after Turkey. During 1964-1977 Razi, Abadan, Pazargad, Ahwaz carbon black, Kharg, Farabi and Shiraz expansion projects were completed.                

Iran as a prominent name in oil and gas industries, has been producing Gas Oil in its enormous and well-equipped petrochemical complexes and has awesome ability for supplying this product to export. 


What is Gas Oil?       

Gas Oils are defined as a middle distillate, predominantly of carbon number range C11 to C25 and range of distillation is 160°C to 420°C. Gas oils are produced via the lowest fraction of crude oil atmospheric distillation, moreover heavy gas oils are produced by residual vacuum predistillation from atmospheric distillation. Gas Oil/Diesel distils between 180°C and 380°C. many grades are available due to the uses: Gas Oil for Diesel compression ignition (cars, trucks, marine, etc.), light heating oil for industrial and commercial uses and other gas oil including heavy gas oils which distil between 380°C and 540°C and are used as petrochemical feedstock.

Definition of Gas oil is: "heavy oil of which not more than 50% by volume distils at a temperature not exceeding 240 degrees Celsius and of which more than 50% by volume distils at a temperature not exceeding 340 degrees Celsius."


Crude distillation unit

The unit comprising of an atmospheric distillation column, side strippers, heat exchanger network, feed de-salter and furnace as main process technologies enables of the crude separation into the different products. basically, five products are obtained from the CDU namely gas + naphtha, kerosene, light gas oil, heavy gas oil and atmospheric residue. few refinery configurations, terminologies include, gasoline, jet fuel and Gas Oil are used to show the product of CDU that they are usually fractions emanating as portions of naphtha, kerosene and gas oil. Products of crude distillation, naphtha, kerosene have higher product values compared with the gas oil and residue. On the other hand, high technology refineries tend to produce lighter components from the heavy products. Consequently, transformations of reactive (chemical processes) are inevitable to convert the heavy intermediate refinery streams into the lighter streams. Operating Conditions: The temperature at the entrance of the furnace where the crude enters is 200 – 280°C. It is then further heated to about 330 – 370°C inside the furnace. The pressure maintained is almost 1 bar.

Iran Gas Oil

Fig 1. Schematic representation of a crude distillation unit


Gas Oil Analysis

Fuel oils are refined from crude petroleum via fractional distillation. usually Petroleum products are grouped into three types of viz. light distillates (LPG, naphtha and gasoline), middle distillates (kerosene and diesel), heavy distillates & residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt, etc.). based on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum) this type is created. Gas Oil is categorized under middle distillate in the process of refining of crude oil. Middle distillates such as kerosene, aviation fuel & Gas Oil. Gas Oil is about 18% heavier compared with gasoline and consists mainly of hydrocarbons that ranges from C12 to C22, with different hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms configurations. usually Gasoline is in C7 to C11 ranges, while kerosene, used for jet engine fuel, is weighted just between diesel & gasoline in C9 to C15 range. These fuels are including paraffin (alkanes), cycloparaffins, aromatics & olefins. therefore, main distillate fractions of diesel & kerosene are having overlapping carbon number distribution e.g. kerosene contains C9 to C15 carbon numbers & diesel contains C12 to C22 carbon numbers. Gas Oil defined as a complex mixture of normal, branched, cyclic alkanes, aromatic compounds with small amounts of alkenes obtained from the middle-distillate and gas-oil fraction during petroleum separation. several physico-chemical properties are dependent on the hydrocarbons composition shows in the fuel. Therefore, study of Gas Oil composition plays crucial role to understand the relationship between fuel composition and performance parameters. A major problem is the separation and identification of pure compounds or classes of compounds from the complex hydrocarbon mixtures in Gas Oil. Due to the predict the phase behavior of crude oil mixtures accurately, some description of the oil composition is required. The simulated distillation technique is based on the fundamental assumption that individual non-polar hydrocarbon components of a sample elute in the order of their boiling points from a GC column coated with nonpolar (hydrocarbon-like), stationary phase.

temperature controlled the Volatility. consequently, during a typical GC run for a crude oil, the oven temperature is sharply increased so that heavier crude oil components, which have a wide range of boiling points, are eluted. 




Test Method

   Density @ 15°C



ASTM D1298


  • Recovered @ 150°C




  • Recovered @ 300°C




  • Recovered @ 357°C


90 min




385 max




3 max

ASTM D1500

   Flash point


54 min


   Sulphur Total


1 max

ASTM D1552



1 a


   Viscosity Kinematic@37.8°C




   Cloud point


2.0 max

ASTM D2500

   Pour point


-3.0 max


   Carbon Residue ( on 10 % Bottoms)


0.1 max




0.01 max


   Water & Sediment


0.05 max

ASTM D2709

   Cetane Index


50 min


Table 1. Gas Oil analysis



Gas Oil Usages

The majority of it commonly used light fuel oils consist of “straight-run” gas oils or vacuum gas oils, i.e. products from atmospheric or vacuum crude oil distillation. Light fuel oil thus can be normally regarded as the mid-boiling cut of crude oil (“middle distillate”). 

consequently, the “identity” or “match” found between a spill sample and a comparison sample often is not very significant because there may be many possible sources of a light fuel oil spill. For example, a particular batch of light fuel oil from a bunker station supplies many ships, and it is often difficult or even impossible to take samples from all potential sources. In some cases, the “identity” between a spill sample and a sample from a possible source may be virtually meaningless, the only certainty being that the comparison sample has actually been taken from one of the many potential sources.

Due to these limitations, close cooperation with the prosecuting authorities is advisable. After determining of the light fuel oil in the main characteristics by GC screening (mentioned below) in-depth analyses must be only be informed if they are justified by the particular circumstances of the case for saving costs and laboratory resources.

Once released onto the water surface, light fuel oils spread very sharply. Forming of very large and thin films will happened in open waters.

According to the thin oil film, just small sample volumes can be obtained from such spills, and there is a high risk of sample contamination by organic pollutants or natural, biogenic compounds from the surrounding water.

Gas Oil keeps the world economy moving. From consumer goods moved around the world, to the generation of electric power, to have more efficiency on farms, Gas Oil is the key point in strengthening the global economy and the standard of living. mostly Gas Oil are used:

  • On-road transportation
  • Farming
  • Rail transportation
  • Marine shipping
  • Off-road uses (e.g., mining, construction, and logging)
  • Electric power generation
  • Military transportation


Gas Oil

Fig 2. 2004 U.S. Gas Oil Sales - Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration


In the United States, on-road transportation, primarily trucks, accounted for nearly 60 percent of the Gas Oil consumed in 2004 (Fig 2). Because Gas Oil is used to move goods from manufacturer to consumer, its sales are linked to the economy strength. Figure 3 illustrated that sales of on-road Gas Oil in the U.S. rose from 32 billion gallons in 1999 to over 37 billion gallons in 2004, an increase of nearly three percent annually. By comparison, U.S. gasoline sales in 2003 were 136 billion gallons and jet fuel sales were 24 billion gallons. Most of the Gas Oil sold in the U.S. is refined in the U.S. usually small volumes are imported and exported in order to the market conditions in coastal or border locations.


iran Gas

Fig 3. Trends in U.S. Gas Oil Sales 1999 – 2004 - Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration

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