MGT PetrOil Company is a major producer, supplier and exporter of many petrochemical products in the Middle East which is located in Iran. MGT PetrOil Company has many years’ experiences in exporting and it is active in case of Bitumen supplying.
Iran holds the world's fourth-largest proved crude oil reserves and the world's second-largest natural gas reserves. Moreover, the world's top 10 oil producers and top 5 natural gas producers is belonging to Iran. The most important rout for exporting of oil from Iran and all Persian Gulf countries is the Strait of Hormuz, off the southeastern coast of Iran. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) volumes also flow through the Strait of Hormuz.
in 1963, (NPC) National Petrochemical Company was established to spearhead the development and policy-making for petrochemical industry in Iran. the oldest petrochemical industry in the Middle East is belong to Iran. proudly in ethylene production, Iran can be introduced as a second major producer after Turkey. During 1964-1977 Razi, Abadan, Pazargad, Ahwaz carbon black, Kharg, Farabi and Shiraz expansion projects were completed.
What is Urea?
Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. The molecule has two amine (- NH2) residues combined by a carbonyl (- CO -) functional group.
Urea has the crucial role in the metabolism of nitrogen - including compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen - containing substance in the urine of mammals. Being solid, colorless, odorless, neither acidic nor alkaline, highly soluble in water, and relatively non-toxic,normally, Urea is sutible for using in fertilizers as a convenient source of nitrogen. One of the most important raw material for the chemical industry is Urea. The synthesis of this organic compound by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828 from an inorganic precursor was an important milestone in the development of chemistry.
The terms Urea and carbamide are also used for a class of chemical compounds sharing the same functional group RR'NCO-NRR', namely a carbonyl group attached to two organic amine residues. For example, it would be including, carbamide peroxide, allantoin, and hydantoin. Urea is related to biurets and in structure to amides, carbamates, diimides, carbodiimides, also for thiocarbamides.
leading nitrogen fertilizer worldwide is Urea (NH2CONH2). This property of this solid is stable, colorless, and odorless at room temperature and It melts at 135°C. Moreover, it is highly water soluble and will slowly hydrolyze in the presence of water to gain ammonium carbamate, which slowly decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide.
As it can show in (Figure 1), global ammonia consumption is determined by commercial application. It can be introduced in the chart that urea fertilizer is, by far, the largest application-accounting for almost half of the total ammonia derivatives.
Fig 1. Global Ammonia Consumption by Product Application (2010)
Chemical Properties - Molecular and crystal structure
The molecule planar is Urea in the crystal structure, on the other hand the geometry around the nitrogen is pyramidal in the gas-phase minimum-energy structure. The oxygen center is engaged in two N-H-O hydrogen bonds in solid Urea. The resulting dense and energetically favorable hydrogen-bond network is making at the cost of efficient molecular packing. The carbon in Urea is defined as sp2 hybridized, the C-N bonds have significant double bond character, and the carbonyl oxygen is normally compared to, say, formaldehyde. Urea's high aqueous solubility reflects its ability to engage in extensive hydrogen bonding with water.
By virtue of its tendency to form a porous framework, Urea would be able to mixe with several organic compounds. In these so-called clathrates, the organic "guest" molecules are held in channels formed by interpenetrating helices comprising of hydrogen-bonded Urea molecules. This characteristic is used in separate mixtures, e.g. in the supplying of different fuel and lubricating oils, and in the paraffin separation.
Fig 2. Urea chemical structure
Due to the helices are interconnected, all helices in a crystal should have the same molecular handedness. when the crystal is nucleated it would be obtained and can be forced by seeding. The resulting crystals have been used to divide racemic mixtures.
Urea Production is on a scale of 100,000,000 tons per year worldwide.
in industry, Urea is obtained from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. usually carbon dioxide is produced during the supplying of ammonia from coal or hydrocarbons namely, natural gas and petroleum-derived raw materials.
in 1922, The basic process was developed, and named the Bosch-Meiser Urea process next its discoverers. basically, Urea processes are characterized by the conditions under that Urea formation takes place and the way in which unconverted reactants are further processed. The process is including two equilibrium reactions, with incomplete conversion of the reactants. The first one is a liquid ammonia exothermic reaction with dry ice to gain ammonium carbamate (H2N-COONH4):
2NH3 + CO2 ↔ H2N-COONH4
The other one is an endothermic decomposition of ammonium carbamate of Urea and water:
H2N-COONH4 ↔ (NH2)2CO + H2O
exothermic is happened when Both reactions are combined. Unconverted reactants are used for supplying of other products, for example ammonium nitrate or sulfate, or they can be recycled for complete conversion to Urea in a whole-recycle process.
Urea can be produced as prills, granules, pellets, crystals, and solutions. Solid Urea is marketed as prills or granules. The advantage of prills is that, they can be produced more economical compare with granules. Properties namely impact strength, crushing strength, and free-flowing behavior are, in particular, important in product handling, storage, and bulk transportation. Typical impurities in the production are biuret and isocyanic acid:
2NH2CONH2 → H2NCONHCONH2 + NH3
NH2CONH2 → HNCO + NH3
The content of biuret is a serious concern that leads to toxic the very plants that are to be fertilized. Urea is classified on the basis of its biuret content.
Totally, Urea can be accessed in the laboratory via phosgene reaction with primary or secondary amines, proceeding through an isocyanate intermediate. Non-symmetric Urea can be showed by reaction of primary or secondary amines with an isocyanate.
Fig 3. Urea production scheme
Resource implies fossil fuel, minerals, metals, lime, and water
Waste implies air, water and solid emission coming out from the industry
Urea is synthesized from ammonia and CO2. This is the basis for all manufacturing technologies. The basic plant process for urea producing is shown in the flow chart in Figure 4.
Fig 4. Urea Manufacturing Process