MGT PetrOil Company is a major producer, supplier and exporter of many petrochemical products in the Middle East which is located in Iran. MGT PetrOil Company has many years’ experiences in exporting and it is active in case of Bitumen supplying.
Iran holds the world's fourth-largest proved crude oil reserves and the world's second-largest natural gas reserves. Moreover, the world's top 10 oil producers and top 5 natural gas producers is belonging to Iran. The most important rout for exporting of oil from Iran and all Persian Gulf countries is the Strait of Hormuz, off the southeastern coast of Iran. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) volumes also flow through the Strait of Hormuz.
in 1963, (NPC) National Petrochemical Company was established to spearhead the development and policy-making for petrochemical industry in Iran. the oldest petrochemical industry in the Middle East is belong to Iran. proudly in ethylene production, Iran can be introduced as a second major producer after Turkey. During 1964-1977 Razi, Abadan, Pazargad, Ahwaz carbon black, Kharg, Farabi and Shiraz expansion projects were completed.
What is Urea?
Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. The molecule has two amine (- NH2) residues combined by a carbonyl (- CO -) functional group.
Urea has the crucial role in the metabolism of nitrogen - including compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen - containing substance in the urine of mammals. Being solid, colorless, odorless, neither acidic nor alkaline, highly soluble in water, and relatively non-toxic,normally, Urea is sutible for using in fertilizers as a convenient source of nitrogen. One of the most important raw material for the chemical industry is Urea. The synthesis of this organic compound by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828 from an inorganic precursor was an important milestone in the development of chemistry.
The terms Urea and carbamide are also used for a class of chemical compounds sharing the same functional group RR'NCO-NRR', namely a carbonyl group attached to two organic amine residues. For example, it would be including, carbamide peroxide, allantoin, and hydantoin. Urea is related to biurets and in structure to amides, carbamates, diimides, carbodiimides, also for thiocarbamides.
leading nitrogen fertilizer worldwide is Urea (NH2CONH2). This property of this solid is stable, colorless, and odorless at room temperature and It melts at 135°C. Moreover, it is highly water soluble and will slowly hydrolyze in the presence of water to gain ammonium carbamate, which slowly decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide.
As it can show in (Figure 1), global ammonia consumption is determined by commercial application. It can be introduced in the chart that urea fertilizer is, by far, the largest application-accounting for almost half of the total ammonia derivatives.
Fig 1. Global Ammonia Consumption by Product Application (2010)
Chemical Properties - Molecular and crystal structure
The molecule planar is Urea in the crystal structure, on the other hand the geometry around the nitrogen is pyramidal in the gas-phase minimum-energy structure. The oxygen center is engaged in two N-H-O hydrogen bonds in solid Urea. The resulting dense and energetically favorable hydrogen-bond network is making at the cost of efficient molecular packing. The carbon in Urea is defined as sp2 hybridized, the C-N bonds have significant double bond character, and the carbonyl oxygen is normally compared to, say, formaldehyde. Urea's high aqueous solubility reflects its ability to engage in extensive hydrogen bonding with water.
By virtue of its tendency to form a porous framework, Urea would be able to mixe with several organic compounds. In these so-called clathrates, the organic "guest" molecules are held in channels formed by interpenetrating helices comprising of hydrogen-bonded Urea molecules. This characteristic is used in separate mixtures, e.g. in the supplying of different fuel and lubricating oils, and in the paraffin separation.
Fig 2. Urea chemical structure
Due to the helices are interconnected, all helices in a crystal should have the same molecular handedness. when the crystal is nucleated it would be obtained and can be forced by seeding. The resulting crystals have been used to divide racemic mixtures.
Urea Production is on a scale of 100,000,000 tons per year worldwide.
in industry, Urea is obtained from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. usually carbon dioxide is produced during the supplying of ammonia from coal or hydrocarbons namely, natural gas and petroleum-derived raw materials.
in 1922, The basic process was developed, and named the Bosch-Meiser Urea process next its discoverers. basically, Urea processes are characterized by the conditions under that Urea formation takes place and the way in which unconverted reactants are further processed. The process is including two equilibrium reactions, with incomplete conversion of the reactants. The first one is a liquid ammonia exothermic reaction with dry ice to gain ammonium carbamate (H2N-COONH4):
2NH3 + CO2 ↔ H2N-COONH4
The other one is an endothermic decomposition of ammonium carbamate of Urea and water:
H2N-COONH4 ↔ (NH2)2CO + H2O
exothermic is happened when Both reactions are combined. Unconverted reactants are used for supplying of other products, for example ammonium nitrate or sulfate, or they can be recycled for complete conversion to Urea in a whole-recycle process.
Urea can be produced as prills, granules, pellets, crystals, and solutions. Solid Urea is marketed as prills or granules. The advantage of prills is that, they can be produced more economical compare with granules. Properties namely impact strength, crushing strength, and free-flowing behavior are, in particular, important in product handling, storage, and bulk transportation. Typical impurities in the production are biuret and isocyanic acid:
2NH2CONH2 → H2NCONHCONH2 + NH3
NH2CONH2 → HNCO + NH3
The content of biuret is a serious concern that leads to toxic the very plants that are to be fertilized. Urea is classified on the basis of its biuret content.
Totally, Urea can be accessed in the laboratory via phosgene reaction with primary or secondary amines, proceeding through an isocyanate intermediate. Non-symmetric Urea can be showed by reaction of primary or secondary amines with an isocyanate.
Fig 3. Urea production scheme
Resource implies fossil fuel, minerals, metals, lime, and water
Waste implies air, water and solid emission coming out from the industry
Urea is synthesized from ammonia and CO2. This is the basis for all manufacturing technologies. The basic plant process for urea producing is shown in the flow chart in Figure 4.
Fig 4. Urea Manufacturing Process
More than 90% of world Urea production has target to use as a nitrogen-release fertilizer. Urea content the highest nitrogen and all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use. thus, it has the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen nutrient.
Many soil bacteria possess the enzyme, Urease, which catalyzes the conversion of the Urea molecule to two ammonia molecules and one carbon dioxide molecule, thus Urea fertilizers are transformed sharply to the ammonium form in soils.
Among soil bacteria known to carry Urease, some ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), such as species of Nitrosomonas are also able to assimilate the carbon dioxide obtained by the reaction to supply biomass via the Calvin Cycle, and harvest energy by oxidizing ammonia (the other product of Urease) to nitrite, a process termed nitrification. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, especially, Nitrobacter, oxidize nitrite to nitrate, which is extremely mobile in soils and is a major cause of water pollution from agriculture. Plants are absorbed by Ammonia and nitrate readily, and are the dominant sources of nitrogen for plant growth. Urea is also used in several multi-component solid fertilizer formulations. Urea is highly water soluble, also very suitable for fertilizer solutions (in combination with ammonium nitrate: UAN), e.g., in 'foliar feed' fertilizers. in fertilizer use, granules are preferred over prills because of their narrower particle size distribution which is an advantage for mechanical application.
Due to the having high nitrogen concentration in Urea, it is crucial to achieve an even spread. The application equipment must be correctly calibrated and properly used.
Urea is a raw material for supplying of most main chemical compounds, namely:
- Various plastics, especially the Urea-formaldehyde resins.
- Various adhesives, like Urea-formaldehyde or the Urea-melamine formaldehyde used in marine plywood.
- Potassium cyanate, another industrial feedstock.
Urea can be used to produce Urea nitrate, a high explosive which is used industrially.
Urea is used in SNCR and SCR reactions to decrease the NOx pollutants in exhaust gases from combustion from Gas Oil, dual fuel, and lean-burn natural gas engines.
The BlueTec system, for example, injects water-based Urea solution into the exhaust system. The ammonia produced by the hydrolysis of the Urea reacts with the nitrogen oxide emissions and is converted into nitrogen and water within the catalytic converter.
Other commercial uses
- A stabilizer in nitrocellulose explosives
- A component of animal feed, providing a relatively cheap source of nitrogen to promote growth
- A non-corroding alternative to rock salt for road de-icing, and the resurfacing of snowboarding halfpipes and terrain parks
- A flavor-enhancing additive for cigarettes
- A main ingredient in hair removers
- A browning agent in factory-produced pretzels
- An ingredient in some skin cream, moisturizers, hair conditioners
- A reactant in some ready-to-use cold compresses for first-aid use, due to the endothermic reaction it creates when mixed with water
- A cloud seeding agent, along with other salts
- A flame-proofing agent, commonly used in dry chemical fire extinguisher charges such as the Urea-potassium bicarbonate mixture
- An ingredient in many tooth whitening products
- An ingredient in dish soap
- Along with ammonium phosphate, as a yeast nutrient, for fermentation of sugars into ethanol
- A nutrient used by plankton in ocean nourishment experiments for geoengineering purposes
- As an additive to extend the working temperature and open time of hide glue
- As a solubility-enhancing and moisture-retaining additive to dye baths for textile dyeing or printing
Urea in concentrations up to 10 M is a powerful protein denaturant as it disrupts the noncovalent bonds in the proteins. This property can be exploited to increase the solubility of some proteins. Urea and choline chloride together is useful to use as a deep eutectic solvent, a type of ionic liquid.
Urea can assume as a hydrogen source for subsequent power generation in fuel cells. Urea present in urine/wastewater would be used directly (though bacteria normally quickly degrade Urea.) Producing hydrogen by electrolysis of Urea solution occurs at a lower voltage (0.37V) and consumes less energy compered with the electrolysis of water (1.2V).
Urea-containing creams are used as topical dermatological products to promote rehydration of the skin. Urea 40% is indicated for psoriasis, xerosis, onychomycosis, ichthyosis, eczema, keratosis, keratoderma, corns and calluses. If used an occlusive dressing, 40% Urea preparations can be used for nonsurgical debridement of nails. main types of instant cold packs (or ice packs) containing water and separated Urea crystals. Rupturing the internal water bag starts an endothermic reaction and help the pack for reducing swelling.
Urea injection is highly beneficial to perform abortions like saline.
Urea is the basic and most important component of an alternative medicinal treatment referred to as urine therapy.
The blood Urea nitrogen (BUN) test is factor for calculating of the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from Urea.
Urea labeled with carbon-14 or carbon-13 is used in the breath test of Urea, that is used to detect the presence of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the stomach and duodenum of humans, associated with peptic ulcers. The test proves that characteristic enzyme Urease, produced by H. pylori, a reaction that supply ammonia from Urea. This increases the pH (reduces acidity) of the stomach environment around the bacteria. Similar bacteria species to H. pylori would be illustrate by the same test in animals namely apes, dogs, and big cats.