Iran naphthalene, naphthalene exporter, naphthalene producer, naphthalene supplier,    Iran naphthalene, naphthalene of Iran, naphthalene supplier, naphthalene middle east

Naphthalene



Naphthalene

MGT PetrOil Company as a major producer, supplier and exporter of several petrochemical products in the Middle East, is located in Iran. MGT PetrOil Company has numerous experiences in exporting and is active in case of Naphthalene supplying.

 

Iran holds the world's fourth-largest proved crude oil reserves and the world's second-largest natural gas reserves. Iran also ranks among the world's top 10 oil producers and top 5 natural gas producers. The Strait of Hormuz, off the southeastern coast of Iran, is an important route for oil exports from Iran and other Persian Gulf countries. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) volumes also flow through the Strait of Hormuz.

National Petrochemical Company (NPC) was established in 1963 to spearhead the development and policy-making for Iran’s petrochemical industry. Iran’s petrochemical industry is the oldest in the Middle East and in ethylene production it is the second oldest after Turkey. During 1964-1977 Razi, Abadan, Pazargad, Ahwaz carbon black, Kharg, Farabi and Shiraz expansion projects were completed.

                                                          

Iran as a prominent name in oil and gas industries, has been producing Naphthalene in its enormous and well-equipped petrochemical complexes and has exemplary ability in case of supplying this product for exporting.

 

What is Naphthalene?

Naphthalene is a white solid that evaporates easily. It is also called mothballs, moth flakes, white tar, and tar camphor. When mixed with air, naphthalene vapors easily burn. Fossil fuels, such as petroleum and coal, naturally contain naphthalene. Burning tobacco or wood produces naphthalene. The major commercial use of naphthalene is to make other chemicals used in making polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. The major consumer products made from naphthalene are moth repellents, in the form of mothballs or crystals, and toilet deodorant blocks. It is also used for making dyes, resins, leather tanning agents, and the insecticide carbaryl.

Naphthalene has a strong but not unpleasant smell. Its taste is unknown, but it must not be unpleasant since children have eaten mothballs and deodorant blocks. You can smell naphthalene in the air at a concentration of 84 parts naphthalene per one billion parts (ppb) of air. You can smell it in water when 21 ppb are present.

1-Methylnaphthalene is a naphthalene-related compound that is also called alpha methylnaphthalene. It is a clear liquid. Its taste and odor have not been described, but you can smell it in water when only 7.5 ppb are present.

Another naphthalene-related compound, 2-methylnaphthalene, is also called beta methylnaphthalene. It is a solid like naphthalene. The taste and odor of 2-methylnaphthalene have not been described. Its presence can be detected at a concentration of 10 ppb in air and 10 ppb in water.

 

Iran Naphthalene

Fig 1. Naphthalene

 

1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are used to make other chemicals such as dyes, and resins. 2-Methylnaphthalene is also used to make Vitamin K. All three chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, wood smoke, tar, asphalt, and at some hazardous waste sites.

 

Naphthalene Production

Naphthalene may be produced from either coal tar or petroleum. Distillation and fractionation of coal tar is the most common production process. The middle fraction (containing most of the naphthalene) is cooled, crystallizing the naphthalene. The crude naphthalene may be refined by distillation, washing, and sublimation. 1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are also produced from coal tar by first extracting the heteroaromatics and phenols, then filtering off the crystallized 2-methylnaphthalene and redistilling the filtrate to yield 1-methylnaphthalene.

Since 1960, recovery of naphthalene from petroleum by dealkylation of methyl naphthalenes in the presence of hydrogen at high temperature and pressure has become a commercial production process. The naphthalene is then recovered by fractionation, decolorized, and purified by crystallization. Naphthalene produced from petroleum is about 99% pure. In the United States, most naphthalene is produced from petroleum.

The production volume of naphthalene in the United States decreased significantly from a peak of 900 million pounds (409,000 metric tons) in 1968 to 222 million pounds (101,000 metric tons) in 1994. Production capacity has remained relatively stable in recent years, with estimated capacity for 2004 at 215 million pounds (97,700 metric tons).

There are currently two companies in the United States producing naphthalene: Advanced Aromatics, L.P., Baytown, Texas and Koppers Industries, Inc., Follansbee, West Virginia. Koppers Industries, Inc. produces 1-methylnaphthalene; Flint Hills Resources L.P., Corpus Christi, Texas, produces 2-methylnaphthalene; and Crowley Chemical Company, Inc., Kent, Ohio and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, produces 1-methylnaphthalene/2-methylnaphthalene (mixed isomers). No data on production volume of 1-methylnaphthalene or 2-methylnaphthalene were located.

Table 5-1 lists information on United States companies that reported the manufacture and use of naphthalene in 2002 (TRI02 2004). The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data should be used with caution since only certain types of facilities are required to report. TRI is not an exhaustive list. 1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are not included in the list of chemicals for which reporting is required for the TRI.

World production of naphthalene in 1987 was around one million tonnes; about onefourth came from western Europe (210 thousand tonnes), one-fifth each from Japan (175 thousand tonnes) and eastern Europe (180 thousand tonnes) and one-eighth from the USA (107 thousand tonnes). In 2000, over 90% of naphthalene in the USA was produced from coal tar; most naphthalene in western Europe was produced from coal tar; and all naphthalene produced in Japan was from coal tar (Lacson, 2000). Naphthalene supply and demand by major region in 2000 is presented in Table 1. Available information on production trends in Japan, the USA and western Europe is summarized in Table 2.

 

Region

Capacity

Production

Consumption

Japan

221

179

172

USA

143

107

109

Western Europe

230

205

133

Total

594

491

414

 

Table 1. Naphthalene supply and demand by major region in 2000 (thousand tonnes)

 

Information available in 2001 indicated that crude naphthalene was manufactured by 36 companies in China, six companies in Japan, four companies each in Brazil and Russia, three companies each in Spain and the USA, two companies each in Argentina, India and Ukraine, and one company each in Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bosnia, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Italy, Korea (Republic of), Mexico, the Netherlands, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Refined naphthalene was manufactured by 16 companies in China, five companies each in India and the USA, four companies each in Spain and Turkey, three companies in Japan, and one company each in Canada, the Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Italy, Korea (Republic of), the Netherlands, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. Naphthalene (grade unspecified) was manufactured by 39 companies in China, three companies in Ukraine, two companies each in Germany and Mexico, and one company each in Brazil, India, Japan, Russia, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the USA (Chemical Information Services, 2001).

 

 

 

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Japan

Crude

NR

NR

90.1

128.6

128.6

202.2

192.7

172.9

Refined

NR

NR

7.2

8.8

13.0

14.2

10.9

6.4

USA

From coal tar

210.5

194.1

159.2

142.4

83.5

81.6

100.2

99.3

From petroleum

157.4

132.0

50.0

61.7

24.9

22.7

7.3

7.3

Total

367.9

326.1

209.1

204.1

108.4

104.3

107.5

106.6

Western Europe

Crude

NR

NR

NR

NR

212

210

160

166

 

Table 2. Naphthalene production (thousand tonnes)

 

 


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